Scope and Contents
The Stephen B. Elkins collection consists of correspondence; scrapbooks and newspaper clippings; financial, legal, and land records; speeches; photographs, maps; personal papers; and research files related to Elkins’ political and business careers. Some materials also relate to the development of the New Mexico Territory and its admission as a state.
The Correspondence series contains letters with political and business associates. Correspondents include several presidents, such as Abraham Lincoln, U.S. Grant, James A. Garfield, Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, and William Howard Taft. Governors and other prominent correspondents include Andrew Carnegie, J.G. Blaine, J.N. Camden, H.G. Davis, M. Hanna, W.S. Herndon, C.C. Catron, R.C. Kerens, J.P. Morgan, and Chauncey Depew.
Business correspondence relates to West Virginia coal companies, Morgantown and Kingwood Railroad, Berkeley Springs Hotel Co., Buckhannon Relief Oil and Gas Co., Allegheny Improvement Company, the Little Kanawha Syndicate, Wheeling Traction Co., W.V. Bridge and Construction Co., Great Falls and Old Dominion Railroad, St. Louis and North Arkansas Railroad, Magistral Exploration Company of Mexico, and the Westernport Electric Railway.
The Scrapbooks and Newspaper Clippings series consists of 26 volumes of scrapbooks and loose newspaper stories related to Elkins’ political and business careers, personal life, and West Virginia politics and campaigns.
The Financial, Legal, and Land Records series contains papers mainly concerning railroads, mining (coal and silver) and lumbering in West Virginia, New Mexico, Texas, and California. Subjects include the Hampshire and Baltimore Coal Company, Davis Coal and Coke Company, West Virginia Central and Pittsburgh and Morgantown and Kingwood railroads; timber and coal lands; the Pressed Prism Plate Glass Company (NY); and Hallihurst Farm.
The Speeches series includes printed speeches made by Elkins throughout his life, and several speeches date to his time in the U.S. Senate.
The Photographs series consists of several images of Elkins, West Virginia, and Halliehurst Mansion. Photographs are available online at http://wvhistoryonview.org/.
The Maps series includes plans for railroads in the eastern United States and property and mine plans in New Mexico.
The Personal Papers series contains some genealogical materials about the Elkins family.
The Research files series consists of typescript notes made by Dr. O.D. Lambert while conducting research for a biography about Stephen B. Elkins. Notes are from the Harrison, Clarkson, and Evarts manuscript collections located at the Library of Congress.
The Senate Papers series contains bills, Congressional Records, and reports.
Stephen Benton Elkins represented West Virginia in the U.S. Senate from 1895 to 1911. He served in the Union Army during the American Civil War, practiced law in the Territory of New Mexico in 1864, and was a member of the Territorial House of Representatives from 1864 to 1865. From 1866 to 1870, Elkins was first the district attorney, then attorney general, and then U.S. district attorney for the Territory. Around 1890, he moved to the town that he founded, Elkins, WV. President Benjamin Harrison appointed him Secretary of War from 1891 to 1893. Elkins died in Washington, D.C., during his third term in the U.S. Senate.
Born in Perry County, Ohio, in 1841, Elkins attended public schools in Westport, Missouri, and graduated in 1860 from the University of Missouri-Columbia, where he studied law. He then became a school teacher in Harrisonville, Missouri. Among his pupils there was Cole Younger—future Confederate guerrilla and outlaw in the James-Younger Gang. According to accounts provided by both men, Younger later rescued Elkins from execution by Confederate guerrillas during the Civil War. More than 30 years later, Elkins was instrumental in securing parole for Younger, who received a life sentence when convicted of bank robbery.
After enlisting in the Union Army, Elkins served as a captain in the Kansas Militia until 1863. In 1864, he began to practice law in Mesilla, New Mexico, after being admitted to the bar in the Territory of New Mexico. He then served in the Territorial House of Representatives from 1864 to 1865. Elkins also was the district attorney (1866–1867), attorney general (1867), and then U.S. district attorney (1867–1870) for the Territory. In 1872, Elkins was elected to Congress as a Republican representative for the Territory of New Mexico, and served in the Forty-third and Forty-fourth Congresses (March 4, 1873–March 3, 1877); he was not a candidate for re-nomination in 1876.
In 1866, Elkins married Sarah Simms Jacobs. She died prior to Elkins’ election to Congress, and was survived by two daughters, Elizabeth and Sallie. In 1875, Elkins married Hallie Davis, daughter of Senator Henry Gassaway Davis of West Virginia. Elkins partnered with Davis in developing natural resources industries in West Virginia, and in 1878, Elkins became a West Virginia citizen. Around 1890, Elkins and his family moved to the town that he founded, Elkins, WV. Together with Davis, Elkins formed the West Virginia Central and Pittsburg Railway, which had main lines emanating from Elkins, WV, and he was associated with the Davis Coal and Coke Company, one of the largest coal companies in existence.
After being elected executive chairman of the National Republican Committee in 1884, Elkins gave his first political speech in West Virginia on February 29, 1888, in Wheeling. President Benjamin Harrison appointed Elkins Secretary of War, and he served from December 17, 1891 to March 5, 1893. Elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate, Elkins served from March 4, 1895, until his death on January 4, 1911. He was chairman of the Committee on the Geological Survey (Fifty-sixth and Fifty-ninth Congresses) and member of the Committee on Interstate Commerce (Fifty-seventh through Sixty-first Congresses). Elkins was interred in Maplewood Cemetery, Elkins, WV.
Clarke, Alan R. The West Virginia Central and Pittsburg Railway: a Western Maryland Predecessor. Lynchburg: TLC Publishing, 2003.
“Elkins, Stephen Benton, (1841 - 1911).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-present. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=E000110
Lambert, Oscar Doane. Stephen Benton Elkins: American Foursquare. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1955.
Spears, Jae. “Stephen B. Elkins.” The West Virginia Encyclopedia. http://www.wvencyclopedia.org/articles/2199